King George III was born in London on June 4, 1738. He was the son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and the grandson of George II. He succeeded his grandfather in 1760, his father having died in 1751. George III was the first of the House of Hanover to be born and educated as an Englishman. He had high but impractical ideas of kingship. George III was the longest reigning of the male British monarchs. George III was king of Great Britain and Ireland and presided over the loss of the American colonies.
Although never an autocratic monarch, George III was always a powerful force in politics. He was a strong supporter of the war against America, and he viewed the concession of independence in 1783 with such detestation that he considered abdicating his throne. At the same time he fought a bitter personal feud with the Whig leader Charles James Fox, and his personal intervention brought the fall of the Fox-North ministry in 1783. He then took a political gamble by placing the government in the hands of William Pitt, thereby restoring stability for the rest of the century. In 1801 he preferred, however, to force Pitt to resign as prime minister rather than permit Catholic Emancipation, a measure that he interpreted as contrary to his coronation oath to uphold the Church of England.
After 1801 George III was increasingly incapacitated by an illness, sometimes identified as porphyry, that caused blindness and senility. His recurring bouts of insanity became a political problem and ultimately compelled him to submit to the establishment of a formal Regency in1811. The regent was his oldest son, the future George IV, one of 15 children borne him by his wife, Charlotte Sophia of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
George III was bitterly criticized by Whig historians of his own and later days. He learned quickly, however, and developed into a shrewd and sensible statesman, although one of conservative views. The best loved of the rulers of the House of Hanover, he enjoyed a personal reputation that stood his house in good stead during the disastrous reign of his son George.
George III died at Windsor Castle on January 29, 1820.
Autograph letter signed, dated September 2, 1786 to an unnamed friend. Letter discusses the design of the Theological Pivre Medal, the health of Elizabeth (his daughter), and his friend's horseback riding. Signed "George R."
George III was born on 4 June 1738 in London, the eldest son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha. He became heir to the throne on the death of his father in 1751, succeeding his grandfather, George II, in 1760. He was the third Hanoverian monarch and the first one to be born in England and to use English as his first language.
George III is widely remembered for two things: losing the American colonies and going mad. This is far from the whole truth. George's direct responsibility for the loss of the colonies is not great. He opposed their bid for independence to the end, but he did not develop the policies (such as the Stamp Act of 1765 and the Townshend duties of 1767 on tea, paper and other products) which led to war in 1775-76 and which had the support of Parliament. These policies were largely due to the financial burdens of garrisoning and administering the vast expansion of territory brought under the British Crown in America, the costs of a series of wars with France and Spain in North America, and the loans given to the East India Company (then responsible for administering India). By the 1770s, and at a time when there was no income tax, the national debt required an annual revenue of £4 million to service it.
The declaration of American independence on 4 July 1776, the end of the war with the surrender by British forces in 1782, and the defeat which the loss of the American colonies represented, could have threatened the Hanoverian throne. However, George's strong defence of what he saw as the national interest and the prospect of long war with revolutionary France made him, if anything, more popular than before.
The American war, its political aftermath and family anxieties placed great strain on George in the 1780s. After serious bouts of illness in 1788-89 and again in 1801, George became permanently deranged in 1810. He was mentally unfit to rule in the last decade of his reign; his eldest son - the later George IV - acted as Prince Regent from 1811. Some medical historians have said that George III's mental instability was caused by a hereditary physical disorder called porphyria.
George's accession in 1760 marked a significant change in royal finances. Since 1697, the monarch had received an annual grant of £700,000 from Parliament as a contribution to the Civil List, i.e. civil government costs (such as judges' and ambassadors' salaries) and the expenses of the Royal Household. In 1760, it was decided that the whole cost of the Civil List should be provided by Parliament in return for the surrender of the hereditary revenues by the King for the duration of his reign. (This arrangement still applies today, although civil government costs are now paid by Parliament, rather than financed directly by the monarch from the Civil List.)
The first 25 years of George's reign were politically controversial for reasons other than the conflict with America. The King was accused by some critics, particularly Whigs (a leading political grouping), of attempting to reassert royal authority in an unconstitutional manner. In fact, George took a conventional view of the constitution and the powers left to the Crown after the conflicts between Crown and Parliament in the 17th century.
Although he was careful not to exceed his powers, George's limited ability and lack of subtlety in dealing with the shifting alliances within the Tory and Whig political groupings in Parliament meant that he found it difficult to bring together ministries which could enjoy the support of the House of Commons. His problem was solved first by the long-lasting ministry of Lord North (1770-82) and then, from 1783, by Pitt the Younger, whose ministry lasted until 1801.
George III was the most attractive of the Hanoverian monarchs. He was a good family man (there were 15 children) and devoted to his wife, Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, for whom he bought the Queen's House (later enlarged to become Buckingham Palace). However, his sons disappointed him and, after his brothers made unsuitable secret marriages, the Royal Marriages Act of 1772 was passed at George's insistence. (Under this Act, the Sovereign must give consent to the marriage of any lineal descendant of George II, with certain exceptions.)
Being extremely conscientious, George read all government papers and sometimes annoyed his ministers by taking such a prominent interest in government and policy. His political influence could be decisive. In 1801, he forced Pitt the Younger to resign when the two men disagreed about whether Roman Catholics should have full civil rights. George III, because of his coronation oath to maintain the rights and privileges of the Church of England, was against the proposed measure.
One of the most cultured of monarchs, George started a new royal collection of books (65,000 of his books were later given to the British Museum, as the nucleus of a national library) and opened his library to scholars. In 1768, George founded and paid the initial costs of the Royal Academy of Arts (now famous for its exhibitions). He was the first king to study science as part of his education (he had his own astronomical observatory), and examples of his collection of scientific instruments can now be seen in the Science Museum.
III also took a keen interest in agriculture, particularly on the crown
estates at Richmond and Windsor, being known as 'Farmer George'. In his
last years, physical as well as mental powers deserted him and he became
blind. He died at Windsor Castle on 29 January 1820, after a reign of almost
60 years - the second longest in British history. - Text Courtesy of: History
of the Crown, historic royal profiles British Royal Government
image and text courtesy of Christie's
image and text courtesy of Christie's
for a complete listing of the
The Forbes Collection Auction - March 27, 2002
GEORGE III, King of England. Document signed ("George R," at head and at end), comprising "Orders and Instructions" for Viscount Richard Howe (1726-1799) and Major General William Howe (1729-1814), "Our Commissioners for restoring Peace to our Colonies and Plantations in North America," St. James's Palace [London], 6 May 1776. 16½ pages, folio (14½ x 9½ in.), with large papered wax Great Seal affixed on first page, neatly bound in pale blue silk ribbon, recipients' docket on final blank, enclosed in a quarter brown morocco protective case with the following. IN VERY FINE CONDITION.
[With:] GEORGE III, King of England. Document signed ("George R," at head and at end), comprising "Additional Separate Instructions" for Viscount Richard Howe and Major General William Howe, "Our Commissioners for restoring Peace to our Colonies and Plantations in North America," St. James's Palace [London], 6 May 1776. 4 pages, folio (14½ x 9½ in.), with papered Great Seal on page 1, bound with pink silk braided cord, recipient's docket on final blank.
A MONTH BEFORE THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE, THE KING RE-ASSERTS THE "DEPENDENCE" OF THE COLONIES. GEORGE III'S OFFICIAL PEACE COMMISSION FOR THE HOWE BROTHERS, EMPOWERING THEM TO PARDON "SUCH OF OUR SUBJECTS...AS SHALL DESERVE OUR ROYAL MERCY"
A remarkable pair of documents issued to the brothers Howe, one commanding the Royal Navy, the other the British army in North America, granting them the unprecedented power to issue pardons in the King's name to any American rebels whom they deemed worthy of such mercy and empowering them to declare any town, county or colony which conforms to Royal decree "to be at our Peace." The peace commission had been proposed in 1774 by Lord North, and initially rejected by the King. North, who was about to impose a blockade on all American ports, felt a conciliatory gesture to be advisable. Lord George Germain was strongly opposed to the commission and determined to "handcuff the peace commission with instructions that would ensure its failure" (D. Cook, The Long Fuse, p.248). Admiral Howe, when he was shown the draft commission, even threatened to resign at what he felt to be the impossibly harsh demands it incorporated. The only modifications the King would grant was to make the commission a joint one with Howe's brother and to allow Howe to listen first to American grievances before presenting Britain's demands. "All Howe could do with these instructions was keep them secret--which he did" (ibid., p.248).
The stated purpose of the "Orders and Instructions" is "to restore the public Tranquillity...which ought...to be maintained between our Subjects in the colonies and the Parent State, to induce such a Submission on their part to lawful authority, as shall consist with the just relation and Dependence in which they stand." The Howes are empowered to grant pardons "to such of our subjects who shall appear to deserve it," and who "shall return to their Allegiance"; they are further authorized to declare any Colony or smaller area "to be at Our Peace," and exempt from restraints on trade. Before any colony or province may be so exempted, it must meet certain preliminary conditions. One asserts that "any Provincial Congresses" that have seized unlawful powers must "be dissolved"; any "bodies of men armed...and acting under the authority of any Congress or Convention" must be "disbanded and dispersed, and all Forts...restored to Our possession." Any loyal subject who may have suffered In their persons or property" from the rebellion should receive compensation set by the duly authorized Court." Interestingly, sections 7-9 make a surprising concession, allowing that the contribution of each colony to its own defense shall be fairly apportioned, and that the taxes to raise such contributions may be set by each colony "in its own discretion," although taxes on imports from Britain are specifically exempted. The Howes are explicitly permitted to "confer with persons of authority" on grievances of the colonies which have led "to the weakening of the Constitutional relation" between the colonies and the crown. The Howes are further enjoined to make full reports of all negotiations they enter into. The "Additional & Separate Instructions" relate exclusively to Rhode Island and Connecticut, stipulating that adjustments must be made to their existing charters of government, to make them consistent with that of the other colonies, before any negotiations with their representatives will be allowed to take place.
Admiral Viscount Howe sailed for America on May 11, five days after the present commission was executed, no doubt with these papers in his sea chest. He intended to meet his brother in Halifax. But William had already gone with the main British army to Staten Island, and poor wind conditions slowed the Admiral's flotilla, so that it was not until July 12 that he reached New York. By that time, the Continental Congress had declared independence eight days earlier. Later, in the wake of the American defeat in the Battle of Long Island, Howe intimated a desire to meet with members of Congress. A Committee was duly appointed, comprising Franklin, John Adams and Edward Rutledge, who met with Howe on September 6. The famous meeting has been recounted widely, most recently by David McCullough. After some discussion it became obvious that "Howe had no other authority than to grant pardons should America submit, which, as Franklin told him, meant that he had nothing really to offer." As McCullough observes, "the Declaration of Independence had passed a first test" (John Adams, New York, 2001, p.158).
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